Category: Ancient Cilvilizations and Giants

10 Alleged Discoveries That Suggest Giants Existed

Marcus Lowth May 7, 2016
Stories of giants are littered throughout mythology and folklore. Almost every culture and society has tales of gigantic people who once roamed the Earth. However, over the last 200 years or so, and particularly since the early 20th century, there have been many alleged finds of giant skeletal remains or fossilized footprints, possibly suggesting that the tales of giants are more than pure legend. All of these accounts also carry an air of conspiracy about them, with insinuations of the discoveries being “covered up” and dismissed thereafter.
Are they all hoaxes, or are there more to these stories than we might think? Here are 10 alleged “giant” discoveries.
10 Giant Bones Found At Lake Delavan
Wisconsin, 1912

According to a report that ran in The New York Times on May 4, 1912, 18 gigantic skeletons, buried in charcoal and baked clay, were found at Lake Delavan in Wisconsin. The discovery was made by the Phillips brothers while excavating a burial mound. They were presumed to be the remains of an unknown race of people who once called the area home.
Although they appeared to be very much human, there were some noticeable differences aside from their much larger size. The bone above the eye socket sloped straight back, and the nose appeared to be much higher than the cheekbones as opposed to being more or less in line with them. The jawbones themselves were described as “bearing a minute resemblance to the head of the monkey!”
These giants apparently weren’t the only ones found in Wisconsin. In 1891, The New York Times also reported that scientists from the Smithsonian Institute had discovered giant remains while investigating burial mounds in the ancient city of Aztalan near Madison, Wisconsin. Six years later in 1897, the Times published another report about the discovery of a 2.7-meter (9 ft) skeleton in nearby Maple Creek.
While all of the reports stated that the findings would be further studied and investigated, there appear to be no published reports or conclusions about them.
9 The Giants Of Death Valley
In 1931, F. Bruce Russell, a former physician from Cincinnati, announced that he had discovered a series of tunnels and caves under California’s Death Valley in the Mojave Desert. With his colleague Daniel S. Bovee, the two men explored the caves extensively. According to the story that Russell told to Howard E. Hill, they found several human skeletons, each around 2.7 meters (9 ft) tall.
Hill told the story at a meeting of the Los Angeles Transportation Club, and the apparent find was reported in The San Diego Union on August 4, 1947. The skeletal remains were apparently mummified, and Bovee stated that he felt their age to be around 80,000 years old.
Within the network of tunnels and caverns, the pair also found what they proposed was the ancient peoples’ “ritual hall,” where they found markings that appeared to be very similar to those used in masonic societies. Hieroglyphics were also said to be found that closely resembled those that have been linked with the lost civilization of Atlantis.
8 Giant Remains Found At Varna
Bulgaria, 2015

Varna, in modern-day Bulgaria, was once the ancient Greek city of Odessos, an important trading post that dates back around 7,000 years. Odessos’s mythology was particularly rife with giants, so when what appeared to be a giant human skeleton was discovered there in January 2015, it raised quite a few eyebrows for those who have an interest in such things.
The discovery was made by accident. Excavators were digging in the area after they found a jar that appeared to date back to the fifth century. They discovered an unknown fortress wall, and as they continued to dig in order to get to the foundations of the wall, they stumbled upon the amazing find.
The skeleton was found with his hands placed on his waist and his head facing to the east. Excavators and investigators believe that he was placed in that position on purpose, indicating that he was most likely of some importance at the time of his death and burial. Although no actual height was released to the media at the time of the find, one of the excavators referred to the skeleton as “very tall” and “impressive.”
7 Enormous Remains Found In Ecuador
In 1964 in Ecuador, Father Carlos Vaca, a priest who also worked in hospitals, was called upon by the locals to look at some strange bones that had been discovered. What was particularly strange about the bones was their amazing size. Father Vaca took some of the bones from the mountain where they had been found, and they remained in his home until his death.
Austrian artifact researcher Klaus Dona was given permission to take the bones back with him to Austria to be examined and to feature in an exhibition called “Unsolved Mysteries.” Klaus claimed that several experts have examined the bones and that they do appear to be human. From the size of the bones they have (including a complete shin bone), Klaus estimates that the person who they belonged to would have stood 7.6 meters (25 ft) tall!
In an interview with Project Camelot, Dona claimed that he subjected the bones to DNA tests courtesy of an Austrian archaeological DNA specialist and that no strands of DNA could be obtained. This led Dona to conclude that the bones had to be over 10,000 years old at the very least. He also claimed in the same interview that the area where they were first discovered translated as “cemetery of the giants” from the local Ayamara language.
6 Giant Mummies Found In Tunnels Near The Colorado River
According to a report in The Arizona Gazette in April 1909, while rafting on the Colorado River, explorer G.E. Kinkaid made several remarkable discoveries. He claimed to have noticed a tunnel that took him almost 1.6 kilometers (1 mi) under the ground.
He encountered a fortified secured area at the end of the tunnel, in which he found copper weapons and tools, a large statue (which Kinkaid claimed looked similar to Buddha), ancient tablets that were carved with strange hieroglyphics, and perhaps most fascinatingly, several 2.7-meter-tall (9 ft) mummies, all wrapped in dark shrouds.
If his claims weren’t controversial enough, Kinkaid added a little conspiracy fuel to the fire when he stated that the government had purposely sealed and closed off the area so that the public would not be aware of its existence. The Arizona Gazette headline also stated that the finds were an indication that ancient, tall people had migrated to the United States thousands of years ago from Asia.
5 The Mystery Of Lovelock Cave

Photo credit: Ken Lund
About 32 kilometers (20 mi) south of Lovelock, Nevada, you will find Lovelock Cave, sometimes referred to as Sunset Guano Cave, Horseshoe Cave, or Indian Cave. The cave is said to be older than known human settlements on the continent, stretching right back to antiquity.
In 1911, two miners, David Hart and James Pugh, who knew about the cave, took an interest in the guano that was present there. They were looking to extract it due to its value at the time as a key ingredient for gunpowder. They quickly set up a company and received permission to begin digging it out, which they immediately began to do. Although they had no intention of searching for anything from ancient times, they soon believed that they’d found exactly that, and they contacted Alfred Kroeber, founder of the University of California’s Anthropology Department.
The first archaeological project in the cave began the following year and was followed by two further digs in 1924 and 1929. Over the course of the excavations, thousands of ancient artifacts were discovered, including around 60 human mummies of average height as well as numerous bones and weapons. They also are said to have found what looked to be sandals that were around 38 centimeters (15 in) long, a giant-sized handprint that appeared to have been embedded into the cave wall, and more mummies—only this time, they appeared to be 2.5 to 3 meters (8–10 ft) tall.
What is interesting, if these finds were indeed true, is that The Paiutes, a Native American tribe that inhabited the area for thousands of years, spoke of a race of red-haired, white-skinned giants whom they referred to as “Si-Te-Cha.” Their home was the recently excavated cave.
4 Giant Human Finger Found In Egypt

In March 2012, photographs of what appeared to be the mummified remains of a giant finger, claimed to have been discovered in Egypt, appeared on various websites and online media outlets. The digit clocked in at 38 centimeters (15 in) long, meaning that if it was proven authentic, the individual it belonged to would have been gigantic.
However, despite the alleged photographic evidence, the finger’s authenticity has yet to be verified, as the person who took the photograph doesn’t have the finger. According to the original story, which appeared on the website of Bild (a German tabloid), the photos were taken in 1988 by Gregor Sporri. He had paid $300 to an unknown man who claimed to belong to a “grave robber dynasty” for the privilege of taking the pictures. The unknown man also presented Sporri with an X-ray and a certificate to prove that it was a human finger, something he had obtained in the 1960s.
Sporri returned to Egypt in 2009 hoping to track down the man he had spoken with, but was he unsuccessful in doing so. At least for now, the huge finger’s whereabouts are unknown.
Interestingly, regarding the existence of giants in ancient Egypt, the Roman scholar Flavius Josephus seemed to believe that they very much existed. In AD 79, he wrote in The History of the Jewish War that, “There were giants. Much larger and shaped differently than normal people. Terrible to behold!”
3 Aleutian Island Discovery
Ivan T. Sanderson was a popular and respected zoologist who regularly appeared on television to disperse his wisdom. One of his strangest tales, however, concerned a letter that he’d received from an engineer working on Shemya in the Aleutian Islands in 1940 during World War II.
The Aleutians sit between Alaska and the easternmost part of Russia and divide the North Pacific and the Bering Sea. The US was using the islands as a base of sorts for the potential (and eventual) conflict with Japan and was in the process of building airstrips when they made a bizarre discovery: As they bulldozed hills to flatten the ground, they came across a graveyard of human skulls and leg bones. They were, however, almost three times as large as a standard adult. The skulls measured between 56 to 61 centimeters (22–24 in) from top to bottom, as opposed to the average of 20 centimeters (8 in).
Sanderson stated that he received a second letter from another member of the unit that confirmed the find and corroborated the first letter. Interestingly, both men stated in their notes that the Smithsonian Institution had “collected” the remains. Sanderson said that not only had the Smithsonian released no data on the find, but they denied that any such relics were had ever been in their possession.
Sanderson asserted that he believed each of the engineers’ claims to be true. He speculated that they “[couldn’t] face rewriting all the textbooks,” given their decision to lock away the discovery.
2 The Giants Of The Caucasus Mountains
Georgia, 2014

In 2014, the TV show The Unexplained Files aired an episode about possible ancient giant civilizations. As part of the episode, they concentrated on the Caucasus Mountains in Georgia.
In 2008, local herdsman had stumbled upon a supposed grave of giants. A group of Georgian researchers soon followed up on the account, speaking to the man who made the discovery as part of their investigation. He informed them that he had come across a stone built crypt, and after gaining entrance to it, he discovered two huge skeletons sitting at a large table.
The researchers ventured into the isolated, mountainous, and densely forested location to see for themselves. They reached the crypt that the man had spoken of, but it had since collapsed. However, under the dirt and rubble, a pile of bones was found. They did indeed appear to be human, aside from the fact that they were much larger.
Samples of the find were investigated by Professor Vekua, a very respected scientist. Hr declared if they were indeed proven to be human bones, then the person they belonged to would have been between 2.5 and 3 meters (8–10 ft) tall. Before any final conclusion could be reached, however, Vekua passed away, and the bones have since been “lost” in the museum they were being held at.
The Unexplained Files crew didn’t recover any further bones, since the crypt appeared to have since completely fallen in. However, they declared that a full excavation of the site should be carried out, which could indeed turn up more of the skeletal remains that the original Georgian researchers found.
1 Giant ‘Footprints’ Found Worldwide

There have been several alleged fossilized giant footprints found throughout the world. Perhaps the most well-known of these is “Goliath’s Footprint” in Mpaluzi, South Africa, a town close to the Swaziland border. The impression is 1.2 meters (4 ft) long and appears to perfectly match a human foot. Although there is debate on exactly how old Goliath’s Footprint is, estimates have ranged anywhere from 200 million to three billion years old.
Other fossilized prints of similar size have also been reported. In 1926, The Oakland Tribune ran a story concerning 1.5-meter (5 ft) footprints on top of a cliff in San Jose, California. The year before, in 1925, an alleged 2.5-meter (8 ft) footprint was discovered near San Jose at the John Bunting ranch.
However, a set of standard-size footprints are perhaps more fascinating in relation to the other, much larger ones. In 1976, anthropologist Mary Leaky reported the discovery of normal-sized fossilized footprints in Tanzania. They looked perfectly human, but their age was estimated to be around 3.6 million years old. This predates—by millions of years—the time frame that mainstream science states modern humans were present on Earth.
If these footprints are genuine, they’d force what we “know” about the history of humanity on Earth to be reevaluated and rewritten, and they’d also beg the question of whether the alleged giant footprints are also genuine. If they were, it would suggest that human beings, at some point in their history, coexisted with so-called giants, just as mythology and legend state they did.

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Steve Quayle and Tom Horn: Giants, demonic portals, and the return of the Nephilim

TRUNEWS) Authors Steve Quayle and Tom Horn say a race of giants exist, demonic portals are being opened around the world, and the vatican is complicit in heralding in the return of the Nephilim.
Quayle and Horn’s statements were made during an exclusive interview with Rick Wiles of TRUNEWS on Tuesday, while discussing their recent research, revelations, and discoveries in the fields of archeology, ancient history, and bible prophecy.
Despite the numerous biblical references of giants, few Christians have knowledge or acknowledge the subject. Many Old Testament bible passages actually mention a race of giants on the earth:
Genesis 6:4 “There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.”
Numbers 13:33 “And there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, which come of the giants: and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight.”
Deuteronomy 2:11 “Which also were accounted giants, as the Anakims; but the Moabites called them Emims.”
Deuteronomy 2:20 “That also was accounted a land of giants: giants dwelt therein in old time; and the Ammonites call them Zamzummims;”
Deuteronomy 3:11 “For only Og king of Bashan remained of the remnant of giants; behold his bedstead was a bedstead of iron; is it not in Rabbath of the children of Ammon? nine cubits was the length thereof, and four cubits the breadth of it, after the cubit of a man.”
Deuteronomy 3:13 And the rest of Gilead, and all Bashan, being the kingdom of Og, gave I unto the half tribe of Manasseh; all the region of Argob, with all Bashan, which was called the land of giants.
These passages have left many questions, such as: Where did these giants come from? What was their connection with ordinary humans? What happened to them? And is it possible they could return? Quayle and Horn have spent most their adult life searching for the answers to these mysteries, and believe they not only can, but have returned.
Over the years, every interview Rick Wiles has conducted with both Horn and Quayle has exposed an encyclopedia of knowledge and insight. Today’s interview lived up to that expectation.
During the interview Steve Quayle, Tom Horn and Rick Wiles discussed:
• The satanic plan to genetically manipulate the human race.
• Evidence that we are coming into the Days of Noah.
• The Vatican observatory called the Large Binocular Telescope Near-infrared Utility with Camera and Integral Field Unit for Extragalactic Research (LUCIFER), located on Mt. Graham in Tucson Arizona.
• The real reason the Apache indians filled a lawsuit to stop the Vatican, NASA, and Arizona State University from building on Mt. Graham.
• The American Indian’s drawings on Mt. Graham depicting a great flood, giants cannibalizing humans, and evil entities coming through “star gates”.
• The origins of sorcery, magic and medicine men in the American Indian culture, and its historical parallel to biblical scripture.
• Pope Francis’ secret meeting with an “entity” who came through a dimensional portal at Mt. Graham.
• Zecharia Sitchin’s work, who funded it, and why.
• The origins of Giants, their characteristics, and evidence of their existence throughout documented history.
• The red haired giant a US special forces unit killed in the mountains of Afghanistan.
• The coinciding trips Barack Obama, Pope Francis, and Patriarch Kirill took to the Antarctic, and the secret importance of the region.
• The reason God instructed the children of Israel to kill all men, women, and children in the Land of Canaan.
• What Jesus said about the Nephilim, and the biblical evidence of their existence.
• Rick Wiles’ dream of an underground ‘hybrid’ army preparing to invade the world

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Mysterious giant sphere unearthed in forest divides opinion

Adam Boult
11 April 2016 • 8:28pm
This round rock could be the oldest stone sphere made by human hands, says Bosnian archaeologist Semir Osmanagic.
Discovered in a forest near the Bosnian town Zavidovici, the ball has a radius of between four and five feet, and an “extremely high” iron content.
Dr Osmanagic believes the sphere proves the existence of an advanced lost civilisation dating back more than 1,500 years ago.
According to his fellow researcher Dr. Sam Osmanagich, the region used to have many more of the spheres well into the 20th century. Many were apparently destroyed in the 1970s due to rumours there was gold hidden in the middle of them.
Dr Osmanagic, known as “the Bosnian Indiana Jones,” hit headlines in 2005 when he claimed that a cluster of hills in Bosnia’s Visoko Valley was in fact the site of ancient pyramids linked by a network of underground tunnels.
While his claims were mocked by some, the Bosnian government gave financial backing enabling excavations to be carried out in the region. Nedzad Brankovic, Bosnian Prime Minister at the time: “We were told the world was laughing at us … but there is no government in the world that should stay quiet on things which are positive.”
Credit: REUTERS/Dado Ruvic /Suad Keserovic cleans a stone ball i
Anthony Harding, the president of the European Association of Archaeologists, described the Visoko excavation as “a total absurdity”, saying: “There is some genuine archaeology on the hill and I’m told it’s medieval, possibly Bronze Age or Roman. But the speculation that there could be a 12,000-year-old structure beneath is a complete fantasy and anyone with basic knowledge of archaeology or history should recognise that.”
In 2016, critics are once again lining up to poke holes in Dr Osmanagic’s rather grand claims. Discussing the Zavidovici spehere, Mandy Edwards of the University of Manchester’s School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences told MailOnline the rock may not be man-made at all, and have been formed by the “precipitation of natural mineral cement within the spaces between sediment grains” – a process known as concretion.

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Medical Miracle Or Playing God: Human Chimeras Made With Man, Animal Cells Provide New Hope For Organ Transplants

Jan 14, 2016 02:42 PM By Dana Dovey @danadovey

Pigs may be useful for more than just bacon soon.
In a world where the demand for organ transplants greatly outnumbers the availability of organ donors, a small division of scientists believes they have a solution: growing human organs inside the bodies of farm animals. Despite the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently denouncing such projects, some independent U.S. research centers have decided to go ahead with plans to grow humans tissue and organs inside the bodies of genetically altered pigs and sheep.
The complicated process would produce something known as a chimera: an organism with an extra set of DNA that it didn’t inherit from either of its parent. Though they sound like something out of a science-fiction novel, they’re actually a common natural occurrence — they can be result from blood transfusions, organ transplants, or in-vitro DNA exchanges between mothers their fetuses. Sometimes they even result from the absorption of one twin in the womb by the other.
With regard to an animal-human chimera, it would be produced from a combination of stem cell technology and gene-editing. Though controversial, the procedure is technically feasible. In a presentation at the NIH’s Maryland campus last November, Dr. Juan Carlos Izpisúa Belmonte of the Salk Institute showed unpublished data from more than a dozen pig embryos that contained human cells. Based on interviews with three U.S. based research teams, the MIT Technology Review estimates about 20 pregnancies involving pig-human or sheep-human chimeras have occurred in the past year. However, none of these animals have gestated to full-term.
In order to create such a creature, scientists must first tweak the DNA inside sheep and pig cells using gene-editing technology, so that the developing embryo will lack certain organs, IFL Science reported. “We can make an animal without a heart,” said Dr. Daniel Garry, a cardiologist who leads a chimera project at the University of Minnesota, according to the MIT Technology Review. “We have engineered pigs that lack skeletal muscles and blood vessels.”
Under normal circumstances these embryos would not survive without such important organs. But scientists have developed a way to replace the missing cells with stem cells from another species’ embryo in order to grow the missing organ. In 2010, for example, Japanese scientists successfully created mice with pancreases made entirely of rat cells. Breeding sheep and pigs with salvageable human organs would be completely new territory, however.
Though most scientists believe it’s possible, some believe the endeavor poses serious ethical concerns, arguing that it’s unclear if the animal’s human qualities will extend past their organs. “What if the embryo that develops is mostly human?” Pablo Ross, a veterinarian and developmental biologist at the University of California, Davis, told the MIT Tech Review while adding this wasn’t something that he could rule out.
“The specter of an intelligent mouse stuck in a laboratory somewhere screaming ‘I want to get out’ would be very troubling to people,” NIH ethicist David Resnik added during the NIH meeting. Still, the chances of either of these results occurring are unlikely, since only about 0.5 percent of animal-human chimeras’ cells are human.
This past fall, the NIH, one of the world’s foremost medical research centers, announced that it will not fund any study involving human-animal chimeras unless more evidence is presented. But even without NIH funding, the demand for more viable organs for transplant operations, and the sheer curiosity surrounding such a taboo subject, could make human-animal chimeras a reality sooner than you think.

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Ancient Race of White Giants Described in Native Legends From Many Tribes

By Tara MacIsaac, Epoch Times | November 29, 2015
Last Updated: November 29, 2015 10:26 am
In Beyond Science, Epoch Times explores research and accounts related to phenomena and theories that challenge our current knowledge. We delve into ideas that stimulate the imagination and open up new possibilities. Share your thoughts with us on these sometimes controversial topics in the comments section below.
Several Native American tribes have passed down legends of a race of white giants who were wiped out. We’ll take a look at a few such legends, including those among the Choctaw and the Comanches of the United States down to the Manta of Peru.
Horatio Bardwell Cushman wrote in his 1899 book “History of the Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Natchez Indians”: “The tradition of the Choctaws . . . told of a race of giants that once inhabited the now State of Tennessee, and with whom their ancestors fought when they arrived in Mississippi in their migration from the west. … Their tradition states the Nahullo (race of giants) was of wonderful stature.”
The tradition of the Choctaws told of a race of giants that once inhabited the now State of Tennessee.
— Horatio Bardwell Cushman
Cushman said “Nahullo” came to be used to describe all white people, but it originally referred specifically to a giant white race with whom the Choctaw came into contact when they first crossed the Mississippi River. The Nahullo were said to be cannibals whom the Choctaw killed whenever the opportunity arose.
Chief Rolling Thunder of the Comanches, a tribe from the Great Plains, gave the following account of an ancient race of white giants in 1857: “Innumerable moons ago, a race of white men, 10 feet high, and far more rich and powerful than any white people now living, here inhabited a large range of country, extending from the rising to the setting sun. Their fortifications crowned the summits of the mountains, protecting their populous cities situated in the intervening valleys.
Innumerable moons ago, a race of white men, 10 feet high, and far more rich and powerful than any white people now living, here inhabited a large range of country.
— Chief Rolling Thunder
“They excelled every other nation which was flourished, either before or since, in all manner of cunning handicraft—were brave and warlike—ruling over the land they had wrested from its ancient possessors with a high and haughty hand. Compared with them the palefaces of the present day were pygmies, in both art and arms. …”
The chief explained that when this race forgot justice and mercy and became too proud, the Great Spirit wiped it out and all that was left of their society were the mounds still visible on the tablelands. This account was documented by Dr. Donald “Panther” Yates, a researcher and author of books on Native American history, on his blog.
Yates also writes of the Starnake people of Navajo legend, describing them as: “A regal race of white giants endowed with mining technology who dominated the West, enslaved lesser tribes, and had strongholds all through the Americas. They were either extinguished or ‘went back to the heavens.’”
In 1864, Pedro de Cieza de León wrote in “Chronicle of Peru” about legendary giants described to him by the Manta indigenous people: “There are, however, reports concerning giants in Peru, who landed on the coast at the point of Santa Elena. … The natives relate the following tradition, which had been received from their ancestors from very remote times.
From the knee downwards, their height was as great as the entire height of an ordinary man.
— Pedro de Cieza de León, conquistador
“There arrived on the coast, in boats made of reeds, as big as large ships, a party of men of such size that, from the knee downwards, their height was as great as the entire height of an ordinary man, though he might be of good stature. Their limbs were all in proportion to the deformed size of their bodies, and it was a monstrous thing to see their heads, with hair reaching to the shoulders. Their eyes were as large as small plates.”
León said that the sexual habits of the giants were revolting to the Natives and heaven eventually wiped out the giants because of those habits.
The Paiutes are said to have an oral tradition that told of red-haired, white, cannibals about 10 feet tall who lived in or near what is now known as Lovelock Cave in Nevada. It is unclear whether this “oral tradition” about the so-called Sitecah giants existed or if it was an exaggeration or distortion of their legends made after the Paiutes were mostly killed or dispersed in 1833 by an expedition by explorer Joseph Walker.
Brian Dunning of Skeptoid explored Paiutes legends and found no mention of the Sitecah being giants. It seems there was, however, a people who practiced cannibalism and who lived in Lovelock Cave. Human remains have been found there, and a few of the human bones had the marrow removed, suggesting the marrow was eaten. Cannibalism seems to have been a rare practice among these peoples, however.
The remains do have red hair, but this may be because black hair can turn red with time.

Lovelock Cave (Bureau of Land Management/Public Domain)

The Humboldt River near Lovelock, Nevada, where the Sitecah people were said to live. (Famartin/CC BY-SA)
Miners unearthed the artifacts in 1912, leaving them in a pile before eventually contacting the University of California. Anthropologist Llewellyn L. Loud traveled from the university to the site to investigate. It is commonly agreed that excavation of the site was not handled well and certainly not up to modern standards. But some proponents of the Sitecah giants theory say researchers have deliberately covered up any giant remains found there.

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Giant 7–8-Foot Skeletons Uncovered in Ecuador Sent for Scientific Testing

By Liz Leafloor | November 15, 2015
In Beyond Science, Epoch Times explores research and accounts related to phenomena and theories that challenge our current knowledge. We delve into ideas that stimulate the imagination and open up new possibilities. Share your thoughts with us on these sometimes controversial topics in the comments section below.
Strikingly tall skeletons uncovered in the Ecuador and Peru Amazon region are undergoing examination in Germany, according to a research team headed by British anthropologist Russell Dement. Will these remains prove that a race of tall people existed hundreds of years ago deep in the Amazonian rainforest?
Since 2013, the team has reported finding half a dozen human skeletons dating to the early 1400s and the mid-1500s that measure between 7 and 8 feet (213 to 243 centimeters) in height.
Dement told Cuenca Highlife: “We are very early in our research and I am only able to provide a general overview of what we have found. I don’t want to make claims based on speculation since our work is ongoing. Because of the size of the skeletons, this has both anthropological and medical implications.”
In late 2013, Dement received word that a skeleton had been uncovered by a Shuar local, approximately 70 miles (112 kilometers) from Cuenca, in Loja Province, Ecuador. Dement traveled to the site and recovered the rib cage and skull of a female which had been exposed by flooding. The bones were thought to date to 600 years ago. The rest of the skeleton was located and, once assembled, reportedly measured 7 feet and 4 inches (223.5 centimeters) in height.
This prompted the formation of a research team including four researchers from Freie Universität in Germany, and the assistance of Shuar locals. Funding was provided by the university for excavation and investigation.
Because of the sensational nature of this, we have to be extremely diligent in our research.
— Russell Dement
Recognizing it is a controversial area of research, Dement noted “Even though I had been working with Freie for many years, I was concerned that they might not give a grant for someone looking for giants. To outsiders, especially scientists, I understand this sounds a little hair-brained. […]
“Because of the sensational nature of this, we have to be extremely diligent in our research since it will be met with a great deal of skepticism,” he said.
Three complete skeletons and two partial skeletons had no disfiguration and they were relatively healthy.
Dement told Cuenca Highlife: “The skeletons show no signs of diseases such as the hormonal growth problems that are common in most cases of gigantism. In all the skeletons, the joints seemed healthy and lung cavity appeared large. One of the skeletons that we have dated was of a female who was about 60 when she died, much older than typical cases of gigantism.”
The burials were elaborate. Bodies were wrapped in leaves and buried in thick clay. This sealed the skeletons and protected against water intrusion, leaving the remains in fairly good condition.
Since the announcement of this discovery, several reports have vastly exaggerated the dimensions of the finds, with 7 feet reported as 7 meters (making them 23 feet tall). The bones have also been erroneously connected with hoax photos, as well as a reconstruction of an “Ecuador giant,” which was a fake skeleton for a now-closed theme park in Switzerland.
Dement had previously studied Amazonian indigenous communities for more than two decades and had heard the legends of “very tall, pale-skinned people who used to live nearby,” he said. Community elders described them to Dement as a race of large, peaceful Amazonians who were welcomed by the indigenous Shuar and Achuar people. However, the locals also believed these people belonged to the “spirit world” and were purely mythical

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Using Ancient DNA, Researchers Unravel the Mystery of Machu Picchu

A collaborative project examines the 400-year-old skeletons of those who worked at the iconic Inca citadel.

September 30, 2015
By Lauren Ingeno
Dramatically perched on an Andes mountain ridge some 8,000 feet above sea level in Peru, Machu Picchu is a visual wonder and a technical masterpiece.
“It is breathtaking,” said Brenda Bradley, an associate professor of anthropology at the George Washington University.
The Inca built the site’s 15th-century ruins without mortar, fitting the blocks of stone so tightly together that you still cannot fit a piece of paper between them. The design included steeped, agricultural terraces to boost planting space and protect against flooding.
But despite its distinction as one of the most iconic and important archeological sites in the world, the origins of Machu Picchu remain a mystery. The Inca left no record of why they built the site or how they used it before it was abandoned in the early 16th century.
“There is a longstanding debate about what the function of Machu Picchu was because it is so unique and unusual as an Inca site,” Dr. Bradley said. “It is too big to be a local settlement. And it’s too small and not the right structure to have been an administrative center for the Inca Empire.”
Now, Dr. Bradley and a team of researchers will be the first to analyze the genomes of the skeletal remains from more than 170 individuals buried at the site. The team’s other members include Lars Fehren-Schmitz from the University of California, Santa Cruz and Yale University’s Richard Burger and Lucy Salazar.
By sequencing the skeletons’ ancient DNA, the researchers hope to better understand the functional role of Machu Picchu and its residents, as well as patterns of diversity, migration and labor diaspora in the Inca Empire—the largest in pre-Columbian America.
Yale explorer Hiram Bingham launched a study of the “lost city of the Incas” in the summer of 1911. His work included excavating Machu Picchu and bringing human bones and other objects, like ceramics and jewelry, back with him to the United States.
The artifacts remained at the Yale Peabody Museum in New Haven until 2012, when, after years of negotiations, the bones and relics were sent back to Peru. The Peru-Yale University International Center for the Study of Machu Picchu and Inca Culture houses the bones and relics. The museum, in Cusco about 45 miles from Machu Picchu, is open to the public and includes more than 360 items from Dr. Bingham’s original excavation.
Before returning the skeletons to their home country, Dr. Bradley—who was a Yale faculty member at the time—and her colleagues scrambled to collect DNA samples from the ancient bones.
Next, with a recent National Science Foundation grant, the researchers will use cutting-edge methods to sequence nuclear, mitochondrial and Y-chromosome DNA from the samples. Dr. Fehren-Schmitz will conduct the initial analysis, and Dr. Bradley will attempt to replicate the results in her lab.
“With ancient human DNA, you always have to worry about contamination,” Dr. Bradley said. “If you replicate the experiment in a different lab with different researchers, and you find the same results, that is the gold standard.”
The researchers will then compare the results of the genetic analysis with previous data from Machu Picchu in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the site.
The prevailing hypothesis among researchers is that Machu Picchu was a so-called “royal retreat”—akin to what Camp David is for the White House—where Inca Emperor Pachacuti would have visited and held diplomatic meetings, Dr. Bradley explained. The archeology indicates that people who resided there were likely crafts specialists brought in from locations throughout the empire to work at the site.
“They were probably very skilled people who came from far and wide to play very specific roles. That’s what we predict,” she said. “We can now look at the DNA to see if that is true.”
The genetic analysis will test this hypothesis by showing the relationships among the ancient people, whether they are from the same ancestral lines and locations, said Dr. Fehren-Schmitz, who has analyzed the genomes of many different populations throughout South America. This information also will help to put Machu Picchu in the context of the larger Inca Empire.
“I’m interested in local processes and how increases in social complexity and social change influence genetic diversity,” he said. “One thing that makes Machu Picchu so interesting is the idea that the people buried there doesn’t reflect just a local population.”
The researchers said the wealth of genomic data they plan to collect also would provide an interesting look at how colonialism affected people living in the Andes. Since the skeletons from Machu Picchu represent a pre-Spanish conquest population, they can compare those genetics to post-colonial DNA.
“Colonialism introduced disease and likely wiped out a lot of genetic diversity,” Dr. Bradley said. “This is a chance to look at genetic diversity before that happened.


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